Map of Sumer

Fundraiser: Mesopotamia Teaching Materials

Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world.

Donate Now


Jan van der Crabben
by P L Kessler
published on 11 July 2013
Send to Google Classroom:

The area which formed Sumer started at the Persian Gulf and reached north to the 'neck' of Mesopotamia where the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates meander much closer to each other. To the east loomed the Zagros Mountains, where scattered city states thrived on trade and learning from Sumer, and to the west was the vast expanse of the Arabian desert.

The rivers have changed course considerably in the last four thousand years, moving well away from some of the cities and causing the complex network of canals to dry up, but at the time, the two rivers had separate entrances into the foreshortened Gulf.

Some of the earliest cities, such as Sippar, Borsippa and Kish in the north, and Ur, Uruk and Eridu in the south formed the endpoints of what became that complex network of cities and canals. Girsu and Nippur were highly important religious centres, but other cities, such as Larsa, Eshnunna, Babylon and Isin didn't really emerge as such until after the end of Sumerian civilisation in circa 2000 BC.

Remove Ads


Cite This Work

APA Style

Kessler, P. L. (2013, July 11). Map of Sumer. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Chicago Style

Kessler, P L. "Map of Sumer." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified July 11, 2013.

MLA Style

Kessler, P L. "Map of Sumer." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 11 Jul 2013. Web. 26 Nov 2020.

Remove Ads


Support Us

We are a non-profit organization.

Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Thank you!