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Crusades
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Crusades

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by popes and Christian western powers in order to take Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control and then defend those gains. There were eight major official crusades...
Northern Crusades
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Northern Crusades

The Northern or Baltic Crusades were military campaigns organised by popes and western rulers to convert pagans to Christianity in the 12th to 15th century CE. Unlike in the Holy Land, where military campaigns were aimed at liberating former...
The Crusades: Consequences & Effects
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Crusades: Consequences & Effects

The crusades of the 11th to 15th century CE have become one of the defining events of the Middle Ages in both Europe and the Middle East. The campaigns brought significant consequences wherever they occurred but also pushed changes within...
The Crusades: Causes & Goals
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Crusades: Causes & Goals

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by Christian powers in order to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control. There would be eight officially sanctioned crusades between 1095 CE and 1270 CE and many...
The Armies of the Crusades
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Armies of the Crusades

The armies of the Crusades (11th-15th centuries CE), which saw Christians and Muslims struggle for control of territories in the Middle East and elsewhere, could involve over 100,000 men on either side who came from all over Europe to form...
First Crusade
Definition by Mark Cartwright

First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095-1102 CE) was a military campaign by western European forces to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control. Conceived by Pope Urban II following an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos...
Reconquista
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Reconquista

The Reconquista (Reconquest) or Iberian Crusades were military campaigns largely conducted between the 11th and 13th century CE to liberate southern Portuguese and Spanish territories, then known as al-Andalus, from the Muslim Moors who had...
Second Crusade
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Second Crusade

The Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE) was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Despite an army of 60,000 and the presence...
Fourth Crusade
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) to retake Jerusalem from its current Muslim overlords. However, in a bizarre combination of cock-ups, financial constraints, and Venetian trading ambitions...
Knights Templar
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Knights Templar

The Knights Templar, established c. 1119 CE and given papal recognition in 1129 CE, was a Catholic medieval military order whose members combined martial prowess with a monastic life for the purpose of defending Christian holy sites and pilgrims...