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Roman Empire
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire, at its height (c. 117 CE), was the most extensive political and social structure in western civilization. By 285 CE the empire had grown too vast to be ruled from the central government at Rome and so was divided by Emperor...
Western Roman Empire
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Western Roman Empire

The Western Roman Empire is the modern-day term for the western half of the Roman Empire after it was divided in two by the emperor Diocletian (r. 284-305 CE) in c. 285/286 CE. The Romans themselves did not use this term. At its height...
Byzantine Empire
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium, existed from 330 to 1453 CE. With its capital founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r. 306-337 CE), the Empire varied in size over the centuries, at one...
Trade in the Roman Empire - Web Quest & Map Skills
Worksheet/Activity by Marion Wadowski

Trade in the Roman Empire - Web Quest & Map Skills

This activity has been designed to fit a 20-30-minute slot for your class and is suitable for both online and classroom teaching. Students have to do a web quest in order to complete a map. It is part of our Roman Economy and Trade...
Empire of Nicaea
Definition by Michael Goodyear

Empire of Nicaea

The Empire of Nicaea was a successor state to the Byzantine Empire, or rather a Byzantine Empire in exile lasting from 1204 to 1261 CE. The Empire of Nicaea was founded in the aftermath of the sacking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade...
Rome's Response to the Spread of Christianity
Article by Rebecca Denova

Rome's Response to the Spread of Christianity

During the 1st century CE, a sect of Jews in Jerusalem claimed that their teacher, Jesus of Nazareth, was the 'messiah' of Israel. 'Messiah' meant 'anointed one', or someone chosen by the God of Israel to lead when God would intervene in...
Roman Religion
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Religion

In many societies, ancient and modern, religion has performed a major role in their development, and the Roman Empire was no different. From the beginning Roman religion was polytheistic. From an initial array of gods and spirits, Rome added...
Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Fall of the Western Roman Empire

To many historians, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE has always been viewed as the end of the ancient world and the onset of the Middle Ages, often improperly called the Dark Ages, despite Petrarch's assertion. Since...
Roman Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Roman Architecture

Roman architecture continued the legacy left by the earlier architects of the Greek world, and the Roman respect for this tradition and their particular reverence for the established architectural orders, especially the Corinthian, is evident...
Antonine Plague
Definition by John Horgan

Antonine Plague

The Antonine Plague, sometimes referred to as the Plague of Galen, erupted in 165 CE, at the height of Roman power throughout the Mediterranean world during the reign of the last of the Five Good Emperors, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (161-180...