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Parthia (Empire)
Definition by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthia (Empire)

The Parthians ruled from 247 BCE to 224 CE creating a vast empire that stretched from the Mediterranean in the west to India and China in the east. East of the Caspian Sea there emerged from the steppe of Central Asia a nomadic Scythian tribe...
Parthia: Rome's Ablest Competitor
Article by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthia: Rome's Ablest Competitor

As a superpower in its own right and in competition with Rome, Parthia’s empire - ruling from 247 BCE to 224 CE - stretched between the Mediterranean in the west to India in the east. Not only did the Parthians win battles against Rome...
Parthian Warfare
Definition by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthian Warfare

Parthian warfare was characterized by the extensive use of cavalry and archers. Coming at enemy troops from all directions Parthian riders created confusion and wreaked havoc. They even developed the famous “Parthian shot.” Able...
Parthian Culture
Definition by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthian Culture

Stretching between China and India in the east to the Mediterranean in the west, Parthia ruled over one of the widest expanses of empire in its time and Parthian culture flourished for 500 years (247 BCE - 224 CE). While known for their...
Parthian Religion
Definition by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthian Religion

Parthian religion might be best described with two words: inclusive and evolving. As Parthia's empire held within it a variety of cultures, the Parthians wisely left each to their own beliefs and traditions, like the Seleucid...
Silk Road
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes, formally established during the Han Dynasty of China, which linked the regions of the ancient world in commerce between 130 BCE-1453 CE. As the Silk Road was not a single thoroughfare...
Ancient Persia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persia

Persia (roughly modern-day Iran) is among the oldest inhabited regions in the world. Archaeological sites in the country have established human habitation dating back 100,000 years to the Paleolithic Age with semi-permanent settlements (most...
Ancient Persian Government
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Government

The government of ancient Persia was based on a highly efficient bureaucracy which combined the concepts of the centralization of power with the decentralization of administration. The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) founded by Cyrus the...
Ancient Persian Governors
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Governors

The Achaemenid Persian Empire functioned as well as it did because of the efficient bureaucracy established by its founder Cyrus the Great (r. c. 550-530 BCE) which was administered through the satrapy system. A Persian governor of a...
Ancient Armenia
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Armenia

Ancient Armenia, located in the south Caucasus area of Eurasia, was settled in the Neolithic era but its first recorded state proper was the kingdom of Urartu from the 9th century BCE. Incorporated into the Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great...