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Richard I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Richard I of England

Richard I of England, also known as Richard the Lionheart (Cœur de Lion), reigned as king of England from 1189 to 1199 CE. The son of Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122-1204 CE), Richard was known...
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a state created in 1099 CE by Crusaders and western settlers after the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE). With Jerusalem as its capital, the kingdom was the most important of the four Crusader States in the Middle...
Jerash
Definition by James Blake Wiener

Jerash

Jerash (aka Gerasa, Gerash or Gerasha) is the capital and the largest city of the Jerash Governorate in Jordan, but in ancient times it was one of the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan cities in the ancient Near East. Settled by...
Marco Polo
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254-1324 CE) was a Venetian merchant and explorer who travelled to China and served the Mongol ruler Kublai Khan (l. 1214-1294 CE) between c. 1275 and 1292 CE. Polo’s adventures are recounted in his own writings, The Travels...
Hausaland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hausaland

Hausaland, sometimes referred to as the Hausa Kingdoms, was a group of small independent city-states in northern central Africa between the Niger River and Lake Chad which flourished from the 15th to 18th century CE. The origins of the Hausa...
Ferdowsi
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ferdowsi

Abolqasem Ferdowsi (l. c. 940-1020 CE, also given as Abul-Qasem Ferdowsi Tusi, Firdawsi, Firdausi) is the author of the Shahnameh (The Persian Book of Kings), one of the greatest works of world literature and the national epic of Iran. He...
Dante Alighieri
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri (1265-1321 CE) was an Italian poet and politician who is most famous for his Divine Comedy (c. 1319 CE) where Dante himself descends through Hell, climbs Purgatory, and arrives at the illumination of Paradise, meeting...
Italy
Definition by Jan van der Crabben

Italy

The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is one of the three peninsulas of Southern Europe (the other two being the Iberian Peninsula and Balkan Peninsula), spanning 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean...
Battle of Marathon
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Battle of Marathon

The Battle on the plain of Marathon in September 490 BCE between Greeks and the invading forces of Persian king Darius I (r. 522-486 BCE) was a victory that would go down in folklore as the moment the Greek city-states showed the world...
Ugarit
Definition by Justin King

Ugarit

Ugarit was an important sea port city in the Northern Levant. Though never a world power, Ugarit was a key economic center in the Ancient Near East, serving as a major trade center between Egypt and the major powers of Bronze Age Asia Minor...