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The Armies of the Crusades
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Armies of the Crusades

The armies of the Crusades (11th-15th centuries CE), which saw Christians and Muslims struggle for control of territories in the Middle East and elsewhere, could involve over 100,000 men on either side who came from all over Europe to form...
Knights Templar
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Knights Templar

The Knights Templar, established c. 1119 CE and given papal recognition in 1129 CE, was a Catholic medieval military order whose members combined martial prowess with a monastic life for the purpose of defending Christian holy sites and pilgrims...
Justinian I
Definition by Will Wyeth

Justinian I

Justinian I reigned as emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 527 to 565 CE. Born around 482 CE in Tauresium, a village in Illyria, his uncle Emperor Justin I was an imperial bodyguard who reached the throne on the death of Anastasius in 518...
Ancient Scotland
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Scotland

Scotland is a country which, today, comprises the northern part of Great Britain and includes the islands known as the Hebrides and the Orkneys. The name derives from the Roman word "Scotti" which designated an Irish tribe who invaded...
Herculaneum
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Herculaneum

Herculaneum, located on the Bay of Naples, was a Roman town which was destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE. Like its neighbour Pompeii, the town was perfectly preserved by a metres-thick layer of volcanic ash which, in the...
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Marcus Licinius Crassus

Marcus Licinius Crassus (115-53 BCE) was perhaps the richest man in Roman history and in his eventful life he experienced both great successes and severe disappointments. His vast wealth and sharp political skills brought him two consulships...
Chrocus
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Chrocus

Chrocus (also known as Crocus) was a king of the Alemanni who invaded Roman Gaul c. 256 CE, and wreaked massive destruction, until he was defeated by the Roman legions at Arles and then executed.  Conversely, he was a king...
Carthaginian Army
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Army

The armies of Carthage permitted the city to forge the most powerful empire in the western Mediterranean from the 6th to 3rd centuries BCE. Although by tradition a seafaring nation with a powerful navy, Carthage, by necessity, had to employ...
Etruscan Art
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Art

The art of the Etruscans, who flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE, is renowned for its vitality and often vivid colouring. Wall paintings were especially vibrant and frequently capture scenes of Etruscans enjoying...
Bucchero
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Bucchero

Bucchero wares are a shiny dark grey to black pottery produced by the Etruscans of central Italy from the 7th to 4th century BCE. Used for everyday purposes and as funerary and votive objects, bucchero incorporates many forms from simple...