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Amazon Women
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Amazon Women

In Greek mythology, the Amazons were a race of warlike women noted for their riding skills, courage, and pride, who lived at the outer limits of the known world, sometimes specifically mentioned as the city of Themiskyra on the Black Sea...
Women of Trachis
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Women of Trachis

Women of Trachis is a Greek tragedy, one of Sophocles’ (c. 496 BCE - c. 406 BCE) lesser-known works, the only one that does not deal with the aftermath of the Trojan War, rather it is concerned with the...
Women in Egypt -- how the status of women in Egypt changed during the Ptolemaic Period
Article by Nathalie Johansson

Women in Egypt -- how the status of women in Egypt changed during the Ptolemaic Period

In chapter 18 of  Hellenistic Egypt (2007, pp. 240-253), Jean Bingen discusses the cultural interactions between the native population of Egypt and its ruling minority of Greek-Macedonians and come to the conclusion that there is...
Women in the Middle Ages
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Women in the Middle Ages

The lives of women in the Middle Ages were determined by the Church and the aristocracy. The medieval Church provided people with the 'big picture' of the meaning of life and one’s place in it; the aristocracy ensured that everyone...
Women in the Viking Age
Article by Emma Groeneveld

Women in the Viking Age

Although women in the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) lived in a male-dominated society, far from being powerless, they ran farms and households, were responsible for textile production, moved away from Scandinavia to help settle Viking territories...
Women in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Egypt

One of the central values of ancient Egyptian civilization, arguably the central value, was ma'at - the concept of harmony and balance in all aspects of one's life. This ideal was the most important duty observed by the pharaoh who...
The Role of Women in the Roman World
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Role of Women in the Roman World

The exact role and status of women in the Roman world, and indeed in most ancient societies, has often been obscured by the biases of both ancient male writers and 19-20th century CE male scholars, a situation only relatively recently redressed...
Women in the Byzantine Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Women in the Byzantine Empire

Women in the Byzantine Empire (4th to 15th century CE) were, amongst the upper classes, largely expected to supervise the family home and raise children while those who had to work for a living did so in most of the industries of the period...
Ten Should-Be Famous Women of Early Christianity
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ten Should-Be Famous Women of Early Christianity

Women feature prominently in the gospels and Book of Acts of the Christian New Testament as supporters of Jesus’ ministry. The most famous of these is Mary Magdalene, most likely an upper-class woman of means instead of the prostitute...
Women in the Mongol Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Women in the Mongol Empire

Women in the Mongol Empire (1206-1368 CE) shared the daily chores and hardships of steppe life with men and were largely responsible for tending animals, setting up camps, childrearing, producing food and cooking it. Having rather more rights...