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Ali ibn Abi Talib
Definition by Syed Muhammad Khan

Ali ibn Abi Talib

Ali ibn Abi Talib, or simply Ali, (l. 601-661 CE) was among the first Muslims, a cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE), and later reigned as the fourth Caliph of Islam from 656 CE to 661 CE, when he was...
Outside View of Imam Ali Shrine in Najaf, Iraq
Image by U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 1st Class Arlo K. Abrahamson

Outside View of Imam Ali Shrine in Najaf, Iraq

Facade of the Meshed Ali, Najaf, Iraq Original description: 030408-N-5362A-002 Near Al Najaf, Iraq (April 08, 2003) -- The holy Shiite Muslim shrine (Dareeh) of the Caliph/Imam Ali (r. 656-661 CE) sits in Najaf. U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's...
Ali & Aisha at the Battle of the Camel
Image by Unknown

Ali & Aisha at the Battle of the Camel

A painting from manuscript of the "Rawdat al-safa" (Persian for "Gardens of Purity") made in Iran c. 1571 - 1572 CE. The painting depicts Ali (r. 656 - 661 CE) and Aisha (c. 613 - 678 CE), who led the opposing factions at the Battle of the...
Calligraphy of Ali's Name
Image by Petermaleh

Calligraphy of Ali's Name

A beautified calligraphic rendition of the name of Ali, the fourth Rashidun Caliph (r. 656-661 CE).
Minaret Top, Ali Mosque, Isfahan
Image by Bruce Allardice (used with permission)

Minaret Top, Ali Mosque, Isfahan

The minaret of the Ali Mosque Manar, Isfahan, Iran (1118-1157 CE). Erected during the reign of Seljuk sultan Sanjar (118-1157 CE). Decorated by two balconies. The shaft below the balconies embellished with interlocking stars in recess, altering...
Minaret, Ali Mosque, Isfahan
Image by Bruce Allardice (used with permission)

Minaret, Ali Mosque, Isfahan

The minaret of the Ali Mosque, Isfahan, Iran. Erected during the reign of Seljuk sultan Sanjar (118-1157 CE). Decorated by two balconies. The shaft below the balconies embellished with interlocking stars in recess, altering to a diamond pattern...
Calligraphic Depiction of Ali as a Lion
Image by Ishvara7

Calligraphic Depiction of Ali as a Lion

Shiite calligraphy depicting Caliph Ali (r. 656-661 CE) as the Lion of God.
Gold Coin of Mamluk Sultan Al-Mansur Ali
Image by American Numismatic Society

Gold Coin of Mamluk Sultan Al-Mansur Ali

Gold dinar of Mamluk sultan al-Mansur Ali minted in Cairo in 1258/59 CE.
First Fitna
Definition by Syed Muhammad Khan

First Fitna

The First Fitna (656-661 CE) was the first civil war of the Islamic Empire fought between the fourth Rashidun Caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-661 CE), and the governor of Syria, Muawiya (later Muawiya I; r. 661-680 CE). Deep fissures divided...
Fatimah bint Muhammad
Definition by Syed Muhammad Khan

Fatimah bint Muhammad

Fatimah (born between 605 and 615 CE, died sometime in 632 CE; date of death is disputed) was the youngest daughter of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE) and his first wife Khadija (l. 555-619 CE). Taking up after her father, Fatimah...